Hello friends! Namaskar! I’m your host Brahmdeo. Friends, like us, the plants also need nourishment. Besides air, water and sunlight, they need as macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in large quantity and calcium, magnesium and sulphur in small quantity. While in very small quantity, as micronutrients, Boron, Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Copper and many other nutrients are also needed. Plants acquire these nutrients mainly from the soil, but these may not be available in the soil in appropriate amount as per the demand of the plants. To solve these problems we use fertilizers. Fertilizers means a material which contains one or more nutrients in concentrated forms. For example, NPK fertilizer means a fertilizer which contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a particular ratio. Similarly, nitrogen rich fertilizers means a fertilizer in which in comparison to other nutrients, the nitrogen is in excess. What I mean to say is that different fertilizers may have a combination of different nutrients. Friends,the next thing is that the fertilizers may either be chemical or organic. Chemical fertilizers are those which are manufactured using synthetic materials in highly concentrated form, such as Urea, DAP, Potash etc. While organic fertilizers uses only those materials which are available naturally, such as mustard cake, neem cake, bone meal, cow dung etc. So, my today’s video is mainly about natural or organic fertilizers where I’ll talk in detail about many organic fertilizers. Friends, before I start telling you about different organic fertilizers, first of all let’s talk about the merits and demerits of organic fertilizers in comparison to chemical fertilizers. The first thing is that organic fertilizers act slowly in comparison to chemical fertilizers. The chemical fertilizers are like ready to eat food for the plants, while the organic fertilizers are not readily available. First they are broken down in the soil and then the essential nutrients are released slowly to the soil to be available to the plants. So, it takes time. But its not a matter of disappointment. Though the chemical fertilizers act fast but their effect remains for lesser time. Secondly, most of the parts of chemical fertilizers keep accumulating in the soil in the form of salts and unbreakable compounds. This increases the alkalinity of the soil and also destroys the useful organism present in it. So, we can say that a continuous use of chemical fertilizer keeps on deteriorating the quality of soil. Exactly opposite to this, the organic fertilizers not only add essential nutrients, but also increase the humus in the soil. This increases the water retention capacity of the soil, improves drainage and help develop useful organism in the soil. This means that the overall quality of the soil keeps on improving with time. Yes, but this is true that organic fertilizers in comparison to chemical fertilizers contain relatively very small amount of nutrients. So, conclusively, I can say that fertilizers whether chemical or organic have their own importance. If used at right time, in right amount and with proper balabnce, a very good result can be obtained. Friends, now is the turn to talk about different organic fertilizers. Since, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, these three nutrients are used in largest quantity by the plants, so at first, I will introduce to you the Nitrogen-rich organic fertilizers. But, before that be aware of the importance of nitrogen for the plants. Actually, nitrogen is an essential part of chlorophyll found in the leaves of plants, with the help of which the plants make their food through photosynthesis. Besides this, it is also an important part of amino acids that forms protein and due to which the growth of the plants take place. So,its nitrogen due to which the plants look lush green and keep on growing rapidly. The use of nitrogen-rich fertilizer in the initial growth stage of any plant is most appropriate. This increases the vegetative growth of plants and the plants become full of green leaves. Friends, in the list of nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer the very first is Animal dung manure. That is, the dung of domestic animals that we have, like cow, buffalo, horse, sheep, goat, etc. Whichever is available at your place can be used. In dung manure, the maximum percentage of NPK is 3,2,1. That is the max. amount of nitrogen is 3%, the max. amount of phosphorus is 2% and max. amount potassium is 1%. The precaution in its use is that it should never be used in raw form. At least one year old composted manure should be used. When well composted, it becomes black and bears no smell at all. More and more older it is, in more and more amount it can be added to the soil. Before potting a plant, it can be added up to 25 to 30% as a nutritional additive and soil conditioner to the potting mix. Being a nitrogen rich fertilizer, it also improves the acidity of the soil. So, by mixing it to the potting mix of acid loving plants like citrus plants and rose in larger quantity, plants give a very good performance. In the list of nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer, the second one is Vermi compost. Its a special kind of compost which is prepared with the help of some kind of Earthworms by decomposing the organic wastes. Due to being prepared by Earthworms, it is also known as worm casing or worm manure etc. Its a nutrient rich fertilizer with uniform texture which has a maximum nitrogen content of 3.5% and maximum phosphorus and potassium content of 2%. Besides this, it has micro nutrients and useful bacteria alongwith growth hormones and enzymes too. This helps grow plants faster and increase immunity towards diseases. Its a better substitute of simple compost. It works as a slow release fertilizer and thus can be added up to 40% to the potting mix . After getting mixed it improves the texture of soil, increases the water retention capacity, provides drainage and aeration and keeps on providing nutrition for a long time to the plants. In the list of nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer the third important fertilizer is de oiled cake fertilizer. That is, after extracting oil from oil-seed crop, the residue that remains is used as nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer. For example, the residue that remains after extracting oil from mustard seeds is called mustard cake. Similarly, Groundnut cake, Neem cake, Cotton seed cake, caster cake, sesame cake, etc. can be used as nitrogen-rich organic fertilizers. They have nitrogen content of 4 to 7%, phosphorus content of 1.5 to 3% and potassium content of 1 to 1.5%. Besides this, they contain secondary nutrients and micro nutrients too. At different places, different oils are used. Therefore, whichever oil cake is available at a particular place, can be used as a fertilizer. These oil cakes can be used individually or in combination. You can use them in two ways. In first method, the de oiled cake should be ground after drying in shade to get a fine powder. After that, every month sprinkle it in the soil around the plant in little amount. Second method gives more better results. In this method the de oiled cake is soaked in water for 1 to 2 days and after that dilute the mixture with water in 1 to 100 ratio. That is, for 1 Kg cake use 100 liters of water. and water the plants with this solution. This fertilizer should be repeated at least after 3 weeks. Due to high content of protein, after its use, the pests and fungus get attracted. Therefore, during the preparation of liquid fertilizer, add some crushed pieces of garlic cloves. Friends, the fourth nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer is Tea Leaf Manure which has nitrogen up to 4%, phosphorus up to 0.25% and potassium up to 0.25%. Besides this, it also contains trace elements as micro nutrients. In place of Tea leaf manure, you can use coffee grounds too. Like Tea leaf manure, Coffee grounds too has NPK and trace elements, but the nitrogen content is only 2%. So, after making tea, get the used tea-leaf washed with water and keep on storing the same in a clay pot. When the pot is full, leave it alone for some time so that the tea-leaf gets decomposed fully. After this the tea-leaf manure is ready which should be ground into fine powder and apply that to the soil of the plants as nitrogen-rich fertilizer. The used-tea leaf after getting washed can be applied in little amount to the soil without composting too. Being high in nitrogen, it increases the acidity of soil a little, so is better for acid loving plants too. Friends, in the list of nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer the fifth one is Fish meal. The end product that we get after composting the rotten fish and their residue is known as fish meal. It contains nitrogen up to 10% and phosphorus and potassium up to 2%. Besides having this much nitrogen, it doesn’t show burning effect to the plants, i.e., doesn’t burn the leaves. The reason for this is that it works as a slow release fertilizer. That is, it releases nutrients slowly over time for long. Besides NPK, the fish meal contains secondary nutrients, micro nutrients and amino acids too. Therefore, at every stage of the growth of plants, it can be used as an amazing fertilizer. Keeping in mind the size of the plants, every month, it should be mixed in the soil in little amount around the plants. Friends, besides these five different nitrogen-rich organic fertilizers , there are more such as Bat guano, Sea-bird guano, Blood meal etc. But these are not available every where. So, whatever among from these are available locally or easily should be used only. Now in the next video, besides talkiing about phosphorus and potassium rich organic fertilizers, also talk about some other specialized fertilizers too. I hope this video will be helpful to you.